The development of the watch
prior to 1300, the human is mainly to time using continuous motion astronomical phenomena and the flow material. For example, the sundial is the use of shadow orientation timing; clepsydra and hourglass is the use of water and sand flow time.
the Eastern Han Dynasty Zhang Heng manufacturing Water Leakage rotating armillary sphere, with the gear system to the celestial globe and timing clepsydra together, clepsydra drop push celestial globe rotates uniformly, one day a week just better, this is the first appearance of mechanical clock. Song Yuanyou three years (1088) Su Song and Han Gong Lian etc. the creation of the clock tower, has used the escapement.
1350, Italy Dante to create the first simple structure of the machinery packed tower clock, day difference is 15 ~ 30 minutes, indicating mechanism only clockwise; from 1500 to 1510, Germany's Henleth first used the steel spring instead of a heavy hammer, created by small mechanical clock verge escapement; 1582 after Italy, the Galileo invented a gravity pendulum; in 1657, Holland introduced the gravity pendulum Huygens mechanical clock, founded the pendulum clock.
1660 British Hooke invented the hairspring, and instead of verge escapement with recoil escapement; 1673, Huygens will balance wheel hairspring is composed of the governor used in watches can carry on; in 1675, Britain's Clement with pallet device made of the most simple anchor escapement this mechanism has been used, pendulum clock in simple in.
in 1695, the British Tom Ping invention H-shaped wheel escapement; in 1715, the British Graham invented the static type of escapement, to make up for the lack of recoil escapement, and lay the foundation for the development of precision mechanical clocks; in 1765, the British March invention free anchor escapement institutions, namely the modern fork escapement predecessor; from 1728 to 1759, the British Harrison created a standard navigation clock with high precision; from 1775 to 1780, the British Arnold create precision table with escapement.
from 18 to nineteenth Century, watch manufacturing industry has been gradually realize industrialization production, and reached a very high level of. In twentieth Century, with the rapid development of electronic industry, battery driven clock, AC electric clock, electric mechanical watch, the pointer type quartz electronic watches, digital quartz electronic watches have been developed, the clock on the poor have less than 0.5 seconds, the clock into the microelectronic technology and the precision machine combination of quartz in new period.
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